Background and aim: Paradoxically, recent investigations have showed that adiponectin levels are inversely associated with muscle strength. However, to date, there is a lack of knowledge on the relationship between muscular fitness (MF) and adiponectin levels in adolescents. We aimed to examine the independent associations between MF and adiponectin levels in adolescents, controlling for several potential confounders. Methods and results: This is a cross-sectional analysis with 529 Portuguese adolescents aged 12-18 years. A MF score was computed as the mean of the handgrip strength and standing long jump standardized values by age and gender. We measured fasting glucose, insulin, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and adiponectin. Linear regression analysis showed a significant inverse association between adiponectin (Z-score by age and sex) and MF score, after adjustments for age, sex, pubertal stage, socioeconomic status, adherence to the Mediterranean diet, body mass index, HOMA-IR, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein and cardiorespiratory fitness (unstandardized β = -0.176; p < 0.005). Analysis of covariance showed a significant difference between the Low MF/Non-overweight group and the High MF/Non-overweight Group (p < 0.05) and between the Low MF/Non-overweight and High MF/Overweight Group (p < 0.05) (F (5, 523) = 2.262, p = 0.047). Conclusion: Adiponectin circulating levels are inversely and independently associated with MF. In non-overweight adolescents, those with high levels of MF presented lower levels of adiponectin compared to those with Low MF. Likewise, overweight adolescents with High MF presented lower levels of serum adiponectin than non-overweight adolescents with Low MF.