Publication Details

Reutlinger, M., Ballmann, A., Vialle, W., Zhang, Z. & Ziegler, A. (2015). Parental goal orientations for their kindergarten children: Introducing the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS). Psychological Test and Assessment Modeling, 57 (2), 163-178.


This study introduces the Nuremberg Parental Goal Orientation Scales (NuPaGOS) which were designed to measure kindergarten children's parents' goal orientations for their children. The postulated four goal orientations are learning goal orientation, performance goal orientation, well-being goal orientation and fear of over-demanding orientation. We expected that the four factors underlie a g-factor. The hypothesis concerning the structure of the goal orientations was confirmed in a study with 203 parents of kindergarten children. Correlational analyses with validation variables provide initial evidence for the concurrent and discriminant validity of the NuPaGOS.