Planning to pedagogy: a tool kit for the beginning teacher
The intention of this chapter is to align the perspectives of planning and assessment. It draws on the current debate about what drives planning and whether assessment informs, or is the endpoint, of planning. The chapter acknowledges that planning and assessment occur together and require concurrent attention and consideration. Learning how to plan has long been recognised as a foundation skill in teaching. Recent research indicates that teachers learn about teaching through planning, and in tum learn about planning through their teaching (Mutton et al., 2011). For you, as a pre-service teacher, lesson planning will involve making decisions about strategies for teaching and learning, questioning and assessment of, as, and for, learning. While much has been written about different approaches to teaching, practitioners in the classroom have some common intentions. The first is an acknowledged focus on learningwhere students are active participants in the learning journey. The second is the need to encourage students to think- learning is not meant to occur within a two-dimensional 'serve it on a platter' mode, but requires active cognitive involvement or engagement. The third intention is to engage students in activities. The underpinning of action and a focus on doing can be aligned with experiential learning- it is where students are encouraged to link their learning; to give it meaning and relevance. Context is also important, and creating a positive learning environment is not only conducive to effective learning, but also vital in developing self-efficacy and self-esteem. Ultimately, teachers want to help their students learn how to learn. This is integral to their role, as is their function as facilitator of learning.