Changes in stratospheric ozone and climate over the past 40-plus years have altered the solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation conditions at the Earth's surface. Ozone depletion has also contributed to climate change across the Southern Hemisphere. These changes are interacting in complex ways to affect human health, food and water security, and ecosystem services. Many adverse effects of high UV exposure have been avoided thanks to the Montreal Protocol with its Amendments and Adjustments, which have effectively controlled the production and use of ozone-depleting substances. This international treaty has also played an important role in mitigating climate change. Climate change is modifying UV exposure and affecting how people and ecosystems respond to UV; these effects will become more pronounced in the future. The interactions between stratospheric ozone, climate and UV radiation will therefore shift over time; however, the Montreal Protocol will continue to have far-reaching benefits for human well-being and environmental sustainability.
Barnes, P. W., Williamson, C. E., Lucas, R. M., Robinson, S. A., Madronich, S., Paul, N. D., Bornman, J. F., Bais, A. F., Sulzberger, B., Wilson, S. R., Andrady, A. L., McKenzie, R. L., Neale, P. J., Austin, A. T., Bernhard, G. H., Solomon, K. R., Neale, R. E., Young, P. J., Norval, M., Rhodes, L. E., Hylander, S., Rose, K. C., Longstreth, J., Aucamp, P. J., Ballare, C. L., Cory, R. M., Flint, S. D., de Gruijl, F. R., Hader, D. -P., Heikkila, A. M., Jansen, M. A.K., Pandey, K. K., Robson, T. Matthew., Sinclair, C. A., Wangberg, S., Worrest, R. C., Yazar, S., Young, A. R. & Zepp, R. G. (2019). Ozone depletion, ultraviolet radiation, climate change and prospects for a sustainable future. Nature Sustainability, Online First 1-11.