Preoperative Nutrition Status and Postoperative Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy
Background: Cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a complex surgery to treat peritoneal surface malignancy (PSM). PSM and gastrointestinal (GI) resection from CRS can lead to significant GI symptoms and malnutrition. There is limited research into the nutrition status of this patient group and the impact of malnutrition on morbidity.
Objective: This study aims to determine if preoperative malnutrition, assessed using the Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), is associated with postoperative morbidity and increased length of stay (LOS) in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC for PSM.
Methods: This study prospectively assessed the nutritional status of patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC using a validated nutrition assessment tool. Preoperative clinical symptoms, Peritoneal Cancer Index (PCI), intraoperative blood transfusions, operative time, GI resections, postoperative morbidity, and LOS, as well as pre- and postoperative nutritional interventions, were recorded. The impact of preoperative nutritional status was assessed in relation to postoperative complications and hospital LOS.
Results: The study included 102 participants; 34 patients (33%) were classified as malnourished (SGA = B or C). Preoperative weight loss (15% vs. 74%; p ≤ 0.001) and the presence of clinical symptoms (18% vs. 47%; p = 0.002) were significantly higher in malnourished patients. While PCI, intraoperative blood transfusions, and GI resections were independent predictors of morbidity, malnutrition was significantly associated with infectious complications and LOS. For each grade of worsening malnutrition, LOS increased by an average of 7.65 days.
Conclusions: Preoperative malnutrition is prevalent in patients undergoing CRS/HIPEC and postoperative morbidity is common. Malnutrition is linked to LOS and plays a role in postoperative outcomes such as infection. Clear pre- and postoperative nutrition pathways are needed to optimize nutrition support and postoperative recovery.