Background: Anthocyanins represent an important subgroup of non-nutritive components of food as evidence continues to build related to their beneficial bioactive effects. Using a recently developed Australian anthocyanin database, the present study aimed to estimate the intake of both total anthocyanins and their subclasses, identify food sources of anthocyanins, and determine associations between anthocyanin intake and measured blood pressure (BP).
Methods: The present study comprised was a secondary analysis of the 2011-12 National Nutrition and Physical Activity component of the Australian Health Survey. Anthocyanin intake was estimated using an Australian anthocyanin database. Usual anthocyanin intake, as estimated from 24-h diet recall data, was computed using multiple source methods, whereas food sources were determined by calculating contribution of food groups to total anthocyanin intake. Regression analysis, adjusted for covariates (age, gender, body mass index, high BP) diagnosis, smoking status and physical activity) assessed the relationship between anthocyanin intake and BP in adults aged ≥50 years.
Results: Mean anthocyanin intake was 24.17 ± 0.32 mg day −1 . Across age groups, berries were the top sources: blackberry (5-65%), cherry (2-24%), blueberry (2-13%) and raspberry (3-12%). There was a significant inverse association between anthocyanin intake and systolic BP (β = −0.04, F = 16.8, d.f. = 6, r2 = 0.05, P < 0.01) and diastolic BP (β = 0.01, F = 5.35, d.f. = 6, R2 = 0.013, P < 0.01), in models that adjusted for covariates.
Conclusions: In comparison with the world composite database, anthocyanin intake in the Australian population was above average [mean (SD): 24.17 (0.32) mg day−1 versus 18.05 (21.14) mg day−1]. Berries comprised up the primary source of anthocyanins. Anthocyanin intake in older adults aged aged ≥50 years was inversely associated with BP.