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Executive Summary: Thirty-four years ago, an unprecedented thinning of stratospheric ozone was reported over Antarctica.The risk of a consequent increase in exposure to solar UV-B radiation (UV-B; wavelengths 280-315 nm) raised concerns about potentially disastrous effects on human health and the Earth's environment. In response, the international community mobilised and worked together to understand the causes and find a solution to this dramatic change in the Earth's atmosphere. In 1985, the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer was signed, which provided the framework for the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, signed in 1987. In these international agreements, the United Nations recognised the fundamental importance of stopping and reversing ozone depletion and preventing its damaging effects. The Montreal Protocol, with its subsequent Amendments and Adjustments, was negotiated to control the consumption and production of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances. The Parties to the Montreal Protocol base their decisions on scientific, environmental, technical, and economic information provided by three Assessment Panels ...