Pre-pregnancy dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: results from an Australian population-based prospective cohort study
Aims/hypothesis: We examined the associations between pre-pregnancy dietary patterns and the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a population-based cohort study of women of reproductive age.
Methods: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health included 3,853 women without pre-existing diabetes who were followed-up between 2003 and 2012. Pre-pregnancy dietary patterns were derived using factor analysis based on 101 food items from a validated food frequency questionnaire. GDM was self-reported and validated in a subsample. Multivariable regression models with generalised estimating equations were used to estimate RR and 95% CI.
Results: During 9 years follow-up, 292 GDM cases (4.4%) were documented in 6,626 pregnancies. No associations were found for the 'Fruit and low-fat dairy' and 'Cooked vegetables' patterns. The 'Meats, snacks and sweets' pattern was associated with higher GDM risk after adjustment for socioeconomic, reproductive and lifestyle factors (RR [95% CI] per SD increase in score: 1.38 [1.02, 1.86]). Further adjustment for BMI attenuated the results (1.35 [0.98, 1.81]). In stratified analysis, the 'Meats, snacks and sweets' pattern was associated with significantly higher GDM risk in parous and obese women, and in women with lower educational qualifications. The 'Mediterranean-style' pattern was associated with lower GDM risk in the fully adjusted model (0.85 [0.76, 0.98]).
Conclusions/interpretation: These findings support general dietary recommendations for women of reproductive age to consume a diet rich in vegetables, whole grains, nuts and fish, and low in red and processed meats and snacks. Further prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Publication Details Citation
Schoenaker, D. A., Soedamah-Muthu, S. S., Callaway, L., & Mishra, G. D. (2015). Pre-pregnancy dietary patterns and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: results from an Australian population-based prospective cohort study. Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health - Papers: Part B. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00125-015-3742-1. Retrieved from https://ro.uow.edu.au/smhpapers1/333