Enantioselective Addition-Alkylation of α,β-Unsaturated Carbonyls via Bisguanidinium Silicate Ion Pair Catalysis
2020 American Chemical Society. Silicon hydrides, alkynylsilanes, and alkoxylsilanes were activated by fluoride in the presence of bisguanidinium catalyst to form hypervalent silicate ion pairs. These activated silicates undergo 1,4-additions with chromones, coumarins, and α-cyanocinnamic esters generating enolsilicate intermediates, for a consequent stereoselective alkylation reaction. The reduction-alkylation reaction proceeded under mild conditions using polymethylhydrosiloxane, a cheap and environmentally friendly hydride source. The addition-alkylation reactions with alkynylsilanes and alkoxylsilanes resulted in the construction of two vicinal chiral carbon centers with excellent enantioselectivities and diastereoselectivities (up to 99% ee, >99:1 dr). Density functional theory calculations and experimental NMR studies revealed that penta-coordinated silicates are crucial intermediates.