Patient, provider, and system factors that contribute to health care-associated infection and sepsis development in patients after a traumatic injury: An integrative review
2020 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd Objectives: Patients after traumatic injury continue to develop health care-associated infections. The aim of this review was to identify risk factors for developing hospital-acquired infection and sepsis in patients experiencing a traumatic injury. Design: This is an integrative review following the framework of Whittemore and Knafl. Data sources: An electronic database search was undertaken using Scopus and Medline databases in early October 2019. Hand searching of key references was also conducted. The existing literature published between January 2007 and September 2019 was searched to identify clinically relevant studies that reflected current healthcare practices and systems. Review methods: Four reviewers independently assessed articles for inclusion eligibility. Full-text versions of the articles were systematically appraised using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses format was used. Results: A total of 15 studies from the United Kingdom, the United States of America, China, and South Korea were included. Twelve of the 15 studies were focused exclusively on patient-based risk factors including gender and comorbidities. Provider-based factors were identified as nurse staffing levels between different categories of nurses with various levels of proficiency. System-level risk factors included interhospital admissions, surgical interventions, and length of stay. Conclusions: Hospital-acquired infections are preventable, and it is imperative that provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection be identified. Patients with traumatic injuries are unable to amend any patient-related risk factors such as comorbidities or gender. However, the identification of provider and system risk factors that contribute to patients with traumatic injuries from developing a hospital-acquired infection would provide clinically relevant and applicable strategies at the macro and meso level being implemented.