Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 5 as a Point of Convergence for Models of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Autism Spectrum Disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is an anxiety-related condition that emerges either in prepuberty, which is more common in males, or in late adolescence, which is more common in females, and is distinguished by time-consuming and distressing patterns of repeated persistent thoughts, ideas, impulses, images, and behaviors. The prevalence of OCD in the United States is 2.3% and is slightly lower in pediatric populations ( 1). It has been estimated that up to 84% of youth diagnosed with OCD have comorbid disorders, such as major depressive disorder, alcohol dependence, and social phobia. Untreated OCD can lead to signi fi cant academic, social, and family dysfunction. The current pharmacological treatments for OCD include serotonin reuptake inhibitors and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. These drugs can cause unfavorable side effects, including gastrointestinal upset, insomnia, and headaches ( 2). In addition, these agents can require months to achieve their therapeutic effects, both delaying relief and reducing compliance.