Background Women with prior gestational diabetes (GDM) have an increased lifetime risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). There are no up-to-date systematic reviews analyzing the relationship of diet with risk of developing T2DM following GDM. Objective To systematically review the evidence from intervention and observational studies on effects of dietary interventions and associations of dietary intake with T2DM outcomes in women with a GDM history. Methods Six electronic databases were searched (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central, Proquest, and Scopus) for articles published until May 2019. This review includes intervention and observational studies among women of any age with a history of GDM that reported on the effects of dietary interventions or association of dietary intake (energy, nutrients, foods, dietary patterns) with T2DM, impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, or prediabetes. Results The systematic review identified five articles reporting results from four intervention studies, and seven articles reporting results from four observational studies. Findings from intervention studies indicated trends toward beneficial effects of a low-glycemic index diet, a low-carbohydrate diet, and a diet in line with general population dietary guidelines, but studies had unclear or high risk of bias. Findings from two cross-sectional and one prospective study indicated poorer diabetes outcomes for women with higher intakes of branched-chain amino acids, total and heme iron, and a diet relatively low in carbohydrates and high in animal fat and protein, and better outcomes among those consuming diets rich in fruit, vegetables, nuts, fish, and legumes, and low in red and processed meats and sugar-sweetened beverages, after adjustment for confounders, including body mass index. Conclusions Findings from observational studies support current dietary guidelines for the prevention of T2DM. Further dietary intervention studies are needed to confirm whether or not dietary modification following a GDM pregnancy reduces women's risk of developing T2DM.
Available for download on Sunday, October 18, 2020