A multicenter case-historical control study on short-term outcomes of tele-intensive care unit
Aims: This study aimed to determine the impact of tele-intensive care unit (ICU) on ICU mortality rate (%), and to quantify association of the tele-ICU intervention with ICU length of stay (LOS, days), readmission rates (%), reintubation rates (%), hospital-acquired pressure ulcer (HAPU) rate (%), and discharge against medical advice (DAMA) rate (%) in five hospitals. Methods: A multicenter case-historical control study was conducted on short-term outcomes of tele-ICU program in five private hospitals within Arabian Gulf Region. Critically ill adult patients admitted into ICU without tele-ICU were recorded as control group (pre-tele-ICU), whereas those admitted to tele-ICU were grouped as treatment group (post-tele-ICU). The observed outcomes for each patient were then recorded, namely mortality, reintubation, readmission, HAPU, DAMA, and length of stay (LOS). Results: Chi-square test showed that there are significant differences in mortality rate (χ2 = 6.596, p = 0.010), readmission rate (χ2 = 4.315, p = 0.038), HAPU rate (χ2 = 10.445, p = 0.001), and DAMA rate (χ2 = 4.485, p = 0.034) between pre-tele-ICU and post-tele-ICU, at 0.05 significance difference level. Independent t-test showed that there is significant different in LOS (t = 43.63, p < 0.001) between pre-tele-ICU (mean = 6.72 days) and post-tele-ICU (mean = 5.79 days). Odds ratio showed that critically ill adult patients who admitted to post-tele-ICU have 19% less reduction in mortality rate, 23% less reduction in readmission rate, 43% less reduction in HAPU rate, and 11% less reduction in DAMA rate as compared with those admitted to pre-tele-ICU. Conclusion: Tele-ICU as a step to improve the quality of health care project has shown statistically significant improvement in the adult ICU patients' outcomes, which lead to lesser mortality rate, readmission rate, HAPU rate, DAMA rate, and shorter LOS.