Publication Details

Kissock, K. R., Neale, E. P. & Beck, E. J. (2020). The relevance of whole grain food definitions in estimation of whole grain intake: a secondary analysis of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey 2011-2012. Public Health Nutrition, 23 (8), 1307-1319.



To determine the impacts of using a whole grain food definition on measurement of whole grain intake compared with calculation of total grams of intake irrespective of the source. Design:

The Australian whole grain database was expanded to identify foods that comply with the Healthgrain whole grain food definition (≥30 % whole grains on a dry weight basis, whole grain ingredients exceeds refined grain and meeting accepted standards for healthy foods based on local regulations). Secondary analysis of the National Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (NNPAS) 2011–2012 dietary intake data included calculation of whole grain intakes based on intake from foods complying with the Healthgrain definition. These were compared with intake values where grams of whole grain in any food had been included. Setting:

Australia. Participants:

Australians (≥2 years) who participated in the NNPAS 2011–2012 (n 12 153). Results:

Following expansion of the whole grain database, 214 of the 609 foods containing any amount of whole grain were compliant with the Healthgrain definition. Significant mean differences (all P < 0·05) of 2·84–6·25 g/d of whole grain intake (5·91–9·44 g/d energy adjusted) were found when applying the Healthgrain definition in comparison with values from foods containing any whole grain across all age groups. Conclusions:

Application of a whole grain food definition has substantial impact on calculations of population whole grain intakes. While use of such definitions may prove beneficial in settings such as whole grain promotion, the underestimation of total intake may impact on identification of any associations between whole grain intake and health outcomes.



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