Partially coherent microscope in phase space
Explicit expressions are presented for different phase-space representations (mutual intensity, Wigner distribution function, and ambiguity function) of the partially coherent image wave field in a microscope system. These are separated into system- and object-dependent parts. The partially coherent image in phase space can be described in terms of different 6D system-dependent kernels, all Fourier transforms of the system mutual spectrum, the region of overlap of two displaced objective pupils and the effective source. The image intensity can be expressed in terms of a 4D kernel, the convolution in spatial frequency of the source, and the Wigner distribution function of the objective pupil, given by a marginal of, or a section through, the respective phase-space kernels.