The phytochemical investigation of the twig and leaf extracts of Goniothalamus tamirensis led to the isolation and identification of 15 compounds including three rare previously undescribed styryllactones, goniotamirenones A-C, together with 12 known compounds. (Z)-6-Styryl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyranone and 5-(1-hydroxy-3-phenyl-allyl)-dihydro-furan-2-one are reported here for the first time as previously undescribed natural products. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. Goniotamirenone A was synthesized via a [2 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of 6-styrrylpyran-2-one in quantitative yield. The absolute configurations of goniotamirenones B and C were identified from experimental and calculated ECD data, while the absolute configurations of (−)-5-acetoxygoniothalamin, (−)-isoaltholactone, parvistone E, and 5-(1-hydroxy-3-phenyl-allyl)-dihydro-furan-2-one were identified by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis using Cu Kα radiation. The absolute configurations of the other related compounds were determined from comparisons of their ECD spectra with relevant compounds reported in the literature. (−)-5-Acetoxygoniothalamin exhibited potent cytotoxicity against the colon cancer cell line (HCT116) with an IC50 value of 8.6 μM which was better than the standard control (doxorubicin, IC50 = 9.7 μM), while (Z)-6-styryl-5,6-dihydro-2-pyranone was less active with an IC50 value of 22.1 μM.