Phloroglucinol Benzophenones and Xanthones from the Leaves of Garcinia cowa and Their Nitric Oxide Production and α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activities
2019 American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy. Five new compounds - two phloroglucinol benzophenones, garciniacowones F (1) and G (2), and three xanthones, garciniacowones H (3), I (4), and J (5) - together with seven known xanthones (6-12) were isolated from the fresh leaves of Garcinia cowa. Their structures were elucidated by detailed analysis of NMR and MS data. Compounds 1 and 2 are phloroglucinol benzophenones containing a polyprenylated bicyclo[3.3.1]nonane ring system, while compounds 3-5 are rare xanthones having farnesyl (3 and 5) and geranylgeranyl (5) units at C-8. Compounds 1, 3, 4, 7, 8, and 10 exhibited inhibitory effects on NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values ranging from 5.4 to 18.6 μM. Compounds 4 and 8 had α-glucosidase inhibitory activities with IC50 values of 15.4 and 11.4 μM, respectively, which were more potent than that of the acarbose control.