Publication Details

Nugraha, A., Damayanti, Y., Wangchuk, P. & Keller, P. (2019). Anti-infective and anti-cancer properties of the Annona species: Their ethnomedicinal uses, alkaloid diversity, and pharmacological activities. Molecules, 24 (23),


Annona species have been a valuable source of anti-infective and anticancer agents. However, only limited evaluations of their alkaloids have been carried out. This review collates and evaluates the biological data from extracts and purified isolates for their anti-infective and anti-cancer activities. An isoquinoline backbone is a major structural alkaloid moiety of the Annona genus, and more than 83 alkaloids have been isolated from this genus alone. Crude extracts of Annona genus are reported with moderate activities against Plasmodium falciparum showing larvicidal activities. However, no pure compounds from the Annona genus were tested against the parasite. The methanol extract of Annona muricata showed apparent antimicrobial activities. The isolated alkaloids from this genus including liriodenine, anonaine, asimilobine showed sensitivity against Staphylococcus epidermidis. Other alkaloids such as (+)-Xylopine and isocoreximine indicated significant anti-cancer activity against A549 and K-562 cell lines, respectively. This review revealed that the alkaloids from Annona genus are rich in structural diversity and pharmacological activities. Further exploration of this genus and their alkaloids has potential for developing novel anti-infective and anticancer drugs.



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