DGT and selective extractions reveal differences in arsenic and antimony uptake by the white icicle radish (Raphanus sativus)
Increasing soil contamination of arsenic (As) and antimony (Sb) is posing a serious concern to human health. Due to insufficient studies on Sb, the biogeochemical behaviour and plant uptake of Sb are assumed to be similar to that of As. As part of extensive research unravelling As and Sb biogeochemistry and plant uptake, the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) technique and sequential extraction procedure (SEP) were applied to evaluate As and Sb uptake by the white icicle radish (Raphanus sativus) cultivated in diluted cattle dip soils contaminated with As only and diluted mining soils contaminated with both As and Sb under agricultural conditions. Labile As and Sb in these soils measured by DGT (CDGT), soil solution (Csol), and SEP (CSEP-labile), were compared with As and Sb bioaccumulation in R. sativus tissues. Regardless of contamination sources and measurement techniques, the results showed that As was consistently more labile than Sb although total As concentrations in two soil types were lower than total Sb. Labile As in cattle dip soils was higher than that in mining soils, although there were no significant differences in soil As concentrations. The analysis of R. sativus tissues revealed that the overall As bioaccumulation was 4.5-fold higher than for Sb, and that As translocation to shoots was limited. In contrast, considerable Sb translocation to shoots was observed. The As and Sb bioaccumulation were strongly correlated with their CSEP-labile, CDGT, and Csol (R2 = 0.87-0.99), demonstrating the effectiveness of these techniques in predicting As and Sb in the white icicle radish. Compared with the cherry bell radish previously studied, the white icicle radish exhibited higher bioaccumulation factors (BAF) for Sb, but lower BAF for As, and lower translocation of As and Sb to shoots, providing understanding of how As and Sb are accumulated by radish cultivars.