The aim of this study was to measure the effects of 12 weeks of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation on body composition, RER, RMR, blood lipid profiles, insulin sensitivity and appetite in exercising, normal-weight persons. In this double-blind, randomised, controlled trial, sixty-two non-obese subjects (twenty-five men, thirty-seven women) received either 3.9 g/d CLA or 3.9 g high-oleic acid sunflower oil for 12 weeks. Prior to and after 12 weeks of supplementation, oral glucose tolerance, blood lipid concentrations, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and computerised tomography scans), RMR, resting and exercising RER and appetite were measured. There were no significant effects of CLA on body composition or distribution, RMR, RER or appetite. During the oral glucose tolerance tests, mean plasma insulin concentrations (0, 30, 120 min) were significantly lower (P equals 0.04) in women who supplemented with CLA (24.3 (SD 9.7) to 20.4 (SD 8.5) mU/ml) compared to high-oleic acid sunflower oil control (23.7 (SD 9.8) to 26.0 (SD 8.8) mU/ml). Serum NEFA levels in response to oral glucose were attenuated in both men and women in the CLA (P equals 0.001) compared to control group. However, serum total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in both groups and HDL-cholesterol concentrations decreased in women over 12 weeks (P equals 0.001, P equals 0.02, P equals 0.02, respectively). In conclusion, mixed-isomer CLA supplementation had a favourable effect on serum insulin and NEFA response to oral glucose in non-obese, regularly exercising women, but there were no CLA-specific effects on body composition, energy expenditure or appetite.