Higher plasma soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels are associated with incident cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: A 12-year follow-up study
To investigate the associations of plasma levels of soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) with incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) and allcause mortality in type 1 diabetes and the extent to which any such associations could be explained by endothelial and renal dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, arterial stiffness, and advanced glycation end products (AGEs). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We prospectively followed 169 individuals with diabetic nephropathy and 170 individuals with persistent normoalbuminuria who were free of CVD at study entry and in whom levels of sRAGE and other biomarkers were measured at baseline. The median follow-up duration was 12.3 years (7.6 -12.5). RESULTS - The incidence of fatal and nonfatal CVD and allcause mortality increased with higher baseline levels of log-transformed sRAGE (Ln-sRAGE) independently of other CVD risk factors: hazard ratio (HR) 1.90 (95% CI 1.13-3.21) and 2.12 (1.26 -3.57) per 1-unit increase in Ln-sRAGE, respectively. Adjustments for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR MDRD ), but not or to a smaller extent for markers of endothelial dysfunction, low-grade inflammation, arterial stiffness, and AGEs, attenuated these associations to HR 1.59 (95% CI 0.91-2.77) for fatal and nonfatal CVD events and to 1.90 (1.09 -3.31) for all-cause mortality. In addition, in patients with nephropathy, the rate of decline of GFR was 1.38 ml/min/1.73 m 2 per year greater per 1-unit increase of Ln-sRAGE at baseline (P = 0.036). CONCLUSIONS - Higher levels of sRAGE are associated with incident fatal and nonfatal CVD and all-cause mortality in individuals with type 1 diabetes. sRAGE-associated renal dysfunction may partially explain this association. 2010 by the American Diabetes Association.