Unhealthy dietary patterns associated with inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in type 1 diabetes: The EURODIAB study
Background and aims: A healthy diet has been inversely associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED) and low-grade inflammation (LGI). We investigated the association between nutrient consumption and biomarkers of ED and LGI in type 1 diabetes. Methods and results: We investigated 491 individuals. Nutrient consumption and lifestyle risk factors were measured in 1989 and 1997. Biomarkers of ED (von Willebrand factor, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble endothelial selectin) and LGI (C-reactive protein, interleukin 6 and tumour necrosis factor α) were measured in 1997 and averaged into Z-scores. The nutrient residual method was used to adjust individual nutrient i ntake for energy intake. Data were analysed with generalised estimation equations. We report increments/decrements in nutrient consumption, averaged over time, per +1 standard deviation (SD) of 1997 ED or LGI Z-scores, after adjustment for sex, age, duration of diabetes, investigation centre, body mass index, energy intake, smoking behaviour, alcohol consumption, and each of the other nutrients. One SD elevation in ED Z-score was associated with a diet lower in fibre [β(95%CI);-0.09(-0.18;-0.004)], polyunsaturated fat [-0.18(-0.31;-0.05)] and vegetable protein [-0.10(-0.20;-0.001)]. For the LGI Z-score results showed associations with fibre [-0.09(-0.17;-0.01)] , polyunsaturated fat [-0.14(-0.24;-0.03)] and cholesterol [0.10(0.01; 0.18)] . Conclusion: In type 1 diabetes, consumption of less fibre, polyunsaturated fat and vegetable protein, and more cholesterol over the study period was associated with more ED and LGI. Following dietary guidelines in type 1 diabetes may reduce cardiovascular disease risk by favourably affecting ED and LGI.