Background--Dialysis patients have an exceedingly high mortality rate. Biomarkers may be useful tools in risk stratification of this population. We evaluated the prognostic value of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) and CRP (C-reactive protein) in predicting adverse outcomes in stable hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Variability in hs-cTnT was also examined. Methods and Results--A retrospective cohort study included 574 dialysis patients (hemodialysis 347, PD 227). Outcomes examined included mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events, with median follow-up of 3.5 years. hs-cTnT was an independent predictor of both outcomes in hemodialysis and PD patients. Increased risk only became significant when hs-cTnT reached quintile 3 ( > 49 ng/L). Area under the receiver operating curve analysis showed that the addition of hs-cTnT to clinical parameters significantly improved its prognostic performance for mortality in PD patients (P=0.002). CRP was an independent predictor of both outcomes in PD patients only. Only CRP in the highest quintile ( > 16.8 mg/L) was associated with increased risk. hs-cTnT remained relatively stable for the whole follow-up period for hemodialysis patients, whereas for PD patients, hs-cTnT increased by 23.63% in year 2 and 29.13% in year 3 compared with baseline (P < 0.001). Conclusions--hs-cTnT and CRP are useful tools in predicting mortality and major adverse cardiovascular events in hemodialysis and PD patients. Given that hs-cTnT levels increase over time in PD patients, interval monitoring may be valuable for risk assessment. In contrast, hs-cTnT in hemodialysis patients has little interval change and progress monitoring is not indicated.