Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'Establishing normal and reference values'


Francesco Mattace-Raso, Erasmus University Medical Center
Albert Hofman, Erasmus University Medical Center
Germaine Verwoert, Erasmus University Medical Center
Jacqueline Witteman, Erasmus University Medical Center
Ian Wilkinson, University of Cambridge
John Cockcroft, Cardiff University
Carmel McEniery, University of Cambridge
- Yasmin, University of Cambridge
Stephane Laurent, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou, Paris Descartes University
Pierre Boutouyrie, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou, Paris Descartes University
Erwan Bozec, Paris Descartes University, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou
Tine Willum Hansen, Copenhagen University Hospital
Christian Torp-Pedersen, University of Copenhagen
Hans Ibsen, Holbaek Hospital, Copenhagen University, Aarhus University
Jorgen Jeppesen, University of Copenhagen
Sebastian Vermeersch, Ghent University
Ernst Rietzschel, Ghent University Hospital
Marc De Buyzere, Ghent University Hospital
Thierry Gillebert, Ghent University Hospital
Luc Van Bortel, Ghent University
Patrick Segers, Ghent University
Charalambos Vlachopoulos, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens
Constantinos Aznaouridis, University of Athens
Christodoulos Stefanadis, University of Athens
Athanase Benetos, Nancy Hospital, University of Athens
Carlos Labat, Nancy Hospital, University of Athens
Patrick Lacolley, Nancy Hospital, University of Athens
Coen Stehouwer, Maastricht University Medical Centre
Giel Nijpels, VU University Medical Center
Jacqueline Dekker, VU University Medical Center
Isabel Ferreira, Maastricht University Medical CentreFollow
Jos Twisk, VU University Medical Center
Sebastien Czernichow, Hospital Avicenne, University of Paris 13
Pilar Galan, University of Paris 13
Serge Hercberg, University of Paris 13, Hospital Avicenne
Bruno Pannier, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou
Alain Guerin, Hospital Center Manhes, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou
Gerard London, Hospital Center Manhes, Hospital European Georges-Pompidou
J Cruickshank, King's College
Simon Anderson, University of Manchester
Anna Paini, University of Brescia
Enrico Rosei, University of Brescia
Maria Muiesan, University of Brescia
Massimo Salvetti, University of Brescia
Jan Filipovsky, Charles University in Prague
Jitka Seidlerova, Charles University in Prague
Milena Dolejsova, Charles University in Prague



Publication Details

Mattace-Raso, F. U. S., Hofman, A., Verwoert, G. C., Witteman, J. C. M., Wilkinson, I., Cockcroft, J., McEniery, C., Yasmin, , Laurent, S., Boutouyrie, P., Bozec, E., Hansen, T. Willum., Torp-Pedersen, C., Ibsen, H., Jeppesen, J., Vermeersch, S. J., Rietzschel, E., De Buyzere, M., Gillebert, T. C., Van Bortel, L., Segers, P., Vlachopoulos, C., Aznaouridis, C., Stefanadis, C., Benetos, A., Labat, C., Lacolley, P., Stehouwer, C. D. A., Nijpels, G., Dekker, J. M., Ferreira, I., Twisk, J. W. R., Czernichow, S., Galan, P., Hercberg, S., Pannier, B., Guerin, A., London, G., Cruickshank, J. Kennedy., Anderson, S. G., Paini, A., Rosei, E. Agabiti., Muiesan, M. Lorenza., Salvetti, M., Filipovsky, J., Seidlerova, J. & Dolejsova, M. (2010). Determinants of pulse wave velocity in healthy people and in the presence of cardiovascular risk factors: 'Establishing normal and reference values'. European Heart Journal, 31 2338-2350.


Aims Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), a direct measure of aortic stiffness, has become increasingly important for total cardiovascular (CV) risk estimation. Its application as a routine tool for clinical patient evaluation has been hampered by the absence of reference values. The aim of the present study is to establish reference and normal values for PWV based on a large European population. Methods and results We gathered data from 16 867 subjects and patients from 13 different centres across eight European countries, in which PWV and basic clinical parameters were measured. Of these, 11 092 individuals were free from overt CV disease, non-diabetic and untreated by either anti-hypertensive or lipid-lowering drugs and constituted the reference value population, of which the subset with optimal/normal blood pressures (BPs) (n ¼ 1455) is the normal value population. Prior to data pooling, PWV values were converted to a common standard using established conversion formulae. Subjects were categorized by age decade and further subdivided according to BP categories. Pulse wave velocity increased with age and BP category; the increase with age being more pronounced for higher BP categories and the increase with BP being more important for older subjects. The distribution of PWV with age and BP category is described and reference values for PWV are established. Normal values are proposed based on the PWV values observed in the non-hypertensive subpopulation who had no additional CV risk factors. Conclusion The present study is the first to establish reference and normal values for PWV, combining a sizeable European population after standardizing results for different methods of PWV measurement.

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