Healthy cities, urbanisation, and healthy islands: Oceania
Oceania is described as a vast and diverse region in which some of the world's greatest and biggest cities are found, but also ones that may not feature on the urbanist radar (e.g. the densely populated capitals of many Pacific Island nations). After an introduction to the ecological, demographic and cultural diversity of this part of the world this chapter proceeds with case descriptions of Christchurch (New Zealand), Onkaparinga and Kiama (Australia), and the Healthy Island initiative. Christchurch, and early adopter of the Healthy Cities idea, benefited from its flexible and value-based character when it was facing post-earthquake recovery challenges. Both Onkaparinga and Kiama found new ways of organising local health development efforts outside and beyond the government and health apparatus. Small Island Developing States (SIDS) have benefited from the Yanuca Healthy Island Declaration that connects heritage, ocean ecosystems, economic development and well-being just like Healthy Cities do-and some of the settlements on such SIDS Healthy Islands in fact are among the most urbanised in the world.