The focus of this literature analysis is the concept of preparing the family and children for surgery. As posited in the literature, surgery causes stress and anxiety that have a negative impact on both parents and their children. Therefore, the need for health care professionals to facilitate positive preparation for surgery to minimize anxiety and enhance postoperative recovery is important. Preparing the family and children for surgery is discussed in depth under the following themes: Preoperative Anxiety in Children, the Impact of Preoperative Anxiety on the Pediatric Patients and Parents, Preoperative Psychological Preparation for Children and Parents, and the Role of Nurse Practitioners in Preoperative Preparation. Through reviewing the literature, it would appear that some areas of preparation for parents are not as sufficient as they could be, particularly with regard to adequate preoperative education programs. The majority of studies reported that therapeutic play and clown interventions used for psychological preparation of parents and their children have been effective in minimizing and decreasing anxiety levels.