Fertility awareness and treatment is becoming an increasing focus in contemporary society. One in six Australian couples experience fertility problems that will impact their ability to conceive. The Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART) nurse plays a fundamental role in optimising quality of care and outcomes for clients accessing ART services in Australia. The ART industry in Australia is required to function within the Reproductive Technology Accreditation Committee Code of Practice. From a nursing perspective, one of the key elements of the Code is competence in relation to the management and coordination of ART treatment cycles. This paper examines the literature in relation to the concepts and assessment of clinical competence as well as the link between clinical competence and the Australian Nursing and Midwifery Council National Competency Standards for Registered Nurses. The literature review was undertaken as part of a research project being undertaken to identify cues to clinical competence for ART nurses in Australia. It is suggested that provision of a competent ART nursing service will optimise the quality of care provided and in turn make a significant impact on the lives and outcomes for women accessing ART services within Australia.