Computer-Aided Design and Manufacturing (CAD/CAM) for Bioprinting
Three-dimensional (3D) printing of human tissues and organs has been an exciting area of research for almost three decades [Bonassar and Vacanti. J Cell Biochem. 72(Suppl 30-31):297-303 (1998)]. The primary goal of bioprinting, presently, is achieving printed constructs with the overarching aim toward fully functional tissues and organs. Technology, in hand with the development of bioinks, has been identified as the key to this success. As a result, the place of computer-aided systems (design and manufacturing-CAD/CAM) cannot be underestimated and plays a significant role in this area. Unlike many reviews in this field, this chapter focuses on the technology required for 3D bioprinting from an initial background followed by the exciting area of medical imaging and how it plays a role in bioprinting. Extraction and classification of tissue types from 3D scans is discussed in addition to modeling and simulation capabilities of scanned systems. After that, the necessary area of transferring the 3D model to the printer is explored. The chapter closes with a discussion of the current state-of-the-art and inherent challenges facing the research domain to achieve 3D tissue and organ printing.