Publication Details

Zivanovic, A., Pastro, N. J., Fromont, J., Thomson, M. & Skropeta, D. (2011). Kinase inhibitory, haemolytic and cytotoxic activity of three deep-water sponges from North Western Australia and their fatty acid composition. Natural Product Communications: an international journal for communications and reviews, 6 (12), 1921-1924.


The c-AMP dependent protein kinase (PKA) inhibition, haemolytic activity, and cytoxicity of 21 extracts obtained from North Western Australian sponges collected from depths of 84-135 m were investigated. Hexane extracts from Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. and Geodia sp. displayed PKA inhibitory activities of 100 and 97% respectively (at 100 μg/mL), while aq. methanol extracts from Haliclona sp. exhibited potent haemolytic activity (75%) and hexane extracts from Geodia sp. were highly toxic (88%) to the brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. As the non-polar extracts gave the greatest PKA inhibition, these were further analysed by GC-MS and 29 fatty acids were identified in the highest proportions in Ircinia/Sarcotragus sp. > Haliclona sp. > Geodia sp. In contrast to shallow-water sponges that are dominated by polyunsaturated fatty acids with a high percentage of long chain fatty acids, LCFAs (C24-C30), the deep-sea sponges investigated herein were all found to be rich in saturated fatty acids, in particular C14-C20 fatty acids, including odd and branched chain fatty acids, with only low levels (0-10%) of LCFAs. Screening of the PKA inhibitory activity of a series of commercially available fatty acids identified C14-C18 fatty acids as possessing significant PKA inhibitory activity that may contribute to the activity observed in the sponges studied.