Kinetics and equilibria of tea infusion: Part 7-The effects of salts and of pH on the rate of extraction of caffeine from Kapchorua Pekoe Fannings
The rates of extraction of caffeine from sieved Kapchorua PF (600–710 μm) have been measured at 80°C with a range of aqueous salt and buffer solutions of ionic strength 0·11 mol dm−3. The first-order rate constants and the half-times of infusion showed no trend with pH when buffers from pH 3·0 to pH 8·3 were employed. The rate constants decreased on the addition of common salts like NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 but increased in the presence of electrolytes such as Bu4NCl that contain large ions. The results cannot be interpreted by changes in osmotic pressure although Donnan effects may be involved. Close parallels were found between the rate constants and the solubilities of caffeine in electrolyte solutions at 25°C. In particular, the values of both properties rise appreciably in the presence of species containing aromatic or other organic rings with which caffeine molecules associate.