Australia, and considers global, and in some cases national, assessments of vulnerability to climate change to evaluate the implications for the Australian coast, or to assess the applicability of particular approaches and methods to Australia. Climate change vulnerability assessment aims at assisting policymakers in adequately responding to the challenge of climate change by investigating how projected changes in the Earth's climate may affect natural systems and human activities. Generally studies consider, exposure or susceptibility of natural coastal systems, the effect on socio-economic systems (“impact assessment”), and/or how human actions may reduce adverse effects of climate change on those systems or activities (“adaptation assessment”, a measure of adaptive capacity). The framework for a climate change vulnerability assessment depends on the system under consideration, stressors, responses (effects), and actions (adaptation). It is important that each assessment is undertaken at the relevant spatial and temporal scales, and the results are often appropriate only at those scales.