Resistant starches protect against colonic DNA damage and alter microflora and gene expression in rats fed a western diet
Resistant starch (RS), fed as high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB), opposes dietary proteininduced colonocyte DNA damage in rats. In this study, rats were fed Western-type diets moderate in fat (19%) and protein (20%) containing digestible starches [low amylose maize starch (LAMS) or low amylose whole wheat (LAW)] or RS [HAMS, HAMSB, or a whole high amylose wheat (HAW) generated by RNA interference] for 11 wk (n = 10/group). A control diet included 7% fat, 13% protein, and LAMS. Colonocyte DNA single-strand breaks (SSB) were significantly higher (by 70%) in rats fed the Western diet containing LAMS relative to controls. Dietary HAW, HAMS, and HAMSB opposed this effect while raising digesta levels of SCFA and lowering ammonia and phenol levels. SSB correlated inversely with total large bowel SCFA, including colonic butyrate concentration (R2 = 0.40; P = 0.009), and positively with colonic ammonia concentration (R2 = 0.40; P = 0.014). Analysis of gut microbiota populations using a phylogenetic microarray revealed profiles that fell into 3 distinct groups: control and LAMS; HAMS and HAMSB; and LAW and HAW. The expression of colonic genes associated with the maintenance of genomic integrity (notably Mdm2, Top1, Msh3, Ung, Rere, Cebpa, Gmnn, and Parg) was altered and varied with RS source. HAW is as effective as HAMS and HAMSB in opposing diet-induced colonic DNA damage in rats, but their effects on the large bowel microbiota and colonocyte gene expression differ, possibly due to the presence of other fiber components in HAW.