The management of perimenopausal menstrual symptoms
Abnormal bleeding around the time of the menopause is common and may be a sign of premalignancy such as endometrial hyperplasia or even endometrial carcinoma. As such all will need uterine assessment which may include transvaginal scan combined with endometrial biopsy, hysteroscopy or a sonohysterogram. Having excluded (pre) cancer, treatment can then be offered. Medical treatment options include tranexamic acid to reduce blood loss, low-dose contraceptive Pills, the levonorgestrel intra-uterine device and cyclic progestins. Surgical options include resecting sub-mucus fibroids hysteroscopically, endometrial ablation and hysterectomy.
Eden, J. O'Neill, S. M. (2012). The management of perimenopausal menstrual symptoms. Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Reproductive Medicine, 22 (4), 98-101.