Publication Details

P. Emosi. Manoa, 'Partners or adversaries? the role of NGOs in the implementation of international fisheries instruments.' in Q. A. Hanich and B. M. Tsamenyi(ed), Navigating Pacific Fisheries: Legal and Policy Trends in the Implementation of International Fisheries Instruments in the Western and Central Pacific Region. (2009) 163-183.

Link to publisher version (URL)

Navigating Pacific Fisheries

Additional Publication Information

ISBN: 9781741281767


Non-government organisations (NGOs) are regarded as ‘heavyweight’ actors in international fora.1 The term NGO refers to any organisation that is not a government or inter-governmental organisation. In fisheries governance in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, the increasing involvement of NGOs is a consequence of post United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED)2 developments and globalisation processes. The 1992 UNCED, also referred to as the Earth Summit, provided the platform for greater participation of civil society in the pursuit of sustainable development and key fisheries principles were elaborated. Other international meetings such as the World Summit on Sustainable Development have reaffirmed principles raised since the Earth Summit.