Publication Details

Toropova, C., Kenchington, R. Ambrose., Vierros, M., Bustamante, G., Glazer, R., Vanzella-Khouri, A., Karibuhoye, C., Wenzel, L., Hibino, K., Tan, M. K., Meliane, I., Gjerde, K. and Lefebvre, C. (2010). Meeting global goals at regional scales and in the high seas. In C. Toropova, I. Meliane, D. Laffoley, E. Matthews and M. Spalding (Eds.), Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities (pp. 41-60). Switzerland: IUCN.

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Global Ocean Protection


The establishment of MPAs is, in essence, a political process and to this end the great majority of MPAs have been established by national authorities, or by state authorities in some larger naitons. Of course oceanographic pattern and processes have no cognizance of political boundaries. Over the last decade, many regional organizations have been dedicating efforts to mprove larger-scale MPA planning and management.