Contestations, Norms, and the Responsibility to Protect as a Regime
What is the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) doctrine? Obviously on one level, it reflects what was agreed to by the member states of the United Nations in the World Summit Outcome Document (WSOD) in 2005 (UN General Assembly, 2005). In that document, states accepted that they have a responsibility to protect their own populations from four identified mass atrocity: genocide, war crimes, ethnic cleansing and crimes against humanity. Further, they accepted respons-ibilities to help protect other populations from atrocity crimes and to take col-lective action when other national authorities are manifestly failing to protect their populations. The R2P doctrine has developed further as it has been opera-tionalized within the United Nations, leading to arguments that it has created "a collection of shared expectations" (Bellamy, 2011: 84).