2020 Elsevier Ltd The important role of fish in food and nutrition security is becoming more widely acknowledged by the fishery sector and within food policy. Integration of fish and food policy, at national, regional or global levels, is required to ensure the contribution of fisheries and aquaculture to human health is supported through governance arrangements. We explore this aspect of food policy integration in Timor-Leste, where malnutrition is a critical health problem. Consumption of fish is low by international standards and only a small proportion of the population engages in fishing. We used a mixed method approach involving desktop policy analysis, interviews and social network analysis to explore interactions among sectoral instruments and organisations. Our results show generally good integration of food security into fisheries policies, but a lack of integration of fish into food policies. Policy network analysis revealed evidence of collaboration and cooperation between sectors, however, consideration of fish and food concerns was not well embedded across all organisations. We discuss challenges and options for future integration of fisheries into sustainable food systems in Timor-Leste and more broadly, including the need for greater political will and resources, combined with clearer targets and actions within instruments.
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