The Causes, Character and Conduct of Internal Armed Conflict and the Effects on Civilian Populations, 1990-2010
It is clear that the end of the cold war did not usher in a period of peace in the world. Quite the opposite: Asia, Africa, the Middle East, Latin America and even Europe have all endured armed conflicts since 1990. The vast bulk of these have been internal wars. Of the ninety-six armed conflicts that occurred between 1989 and 1996, only five were between states. This trend became even more pronounced in the 2000s. As one major survey notes, '[w]hat stands out in the 21st century is the lack of large-scale interstate conflict.' Thus, of fourteen armed conflicts recorded in 2014, only one was between states; the rest occurred within states? This chapter explores causes, character and conduct of internal armed conflicts since 1990 and the effects on civilian populations ...