Conclusions: Norms and the Politics of Implementation



Publication Details

Betts, A. & Orchard, P. (2014). Conclusions: Norms and the Politics of Implementation. In A. Betts & P. Orchard (Eds.), Implementation and World Politics: How International Norms Change Practice (pp. 269-285). Oxford, United Kingdom: Oxford University Press.


This conclusion re-evaluates the book's theoretical framework in light of the findings of the empirical chapters, and considers what the chapters mean collectively for research and policy in three areas. First, the conclusion highlights patterns of dynamic contestation which exist through norm contestations at the domestic level opened up by implementation processes. These can include feedback to the international level. It also removes a clear endpoint for the norm introduction process, suggesting instead that contestation can be an iterative process. Second, it points to the importance of material and ideational structures for constraining, enabling, and shaping what norms do in practice. Finally, it argues that implementation processes are affected by the form of norm-whether treaty-based, principle, or policy-and that complex norms, difficult norms with a range of prescriptions, are more likely to be introduced first as less formal principle norms.

Please refer to publisher version or contact your library.