Use of technology in maritime regulation and enforcement
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This chapter demonstrates how a growing number of technology applications have emerged for both maritime regulation and enforcement. To illustrate the trend it particularly focuses on technologies used for vessel tracking and emissions reductions. Before beginning that discussion, a distinction needs to be made, in the context of technology applications, between maritime regulation, on the one hand, and enforcement, on the other. It is also important to reiterate the problem that whilst enforcement-enabling technologies have multipliled in their availability and potential application, the enforcement powers enjoyed by States remain bounded by the international law framework or jurisdiction which applies within each maritime zone.