Promoting democracy and finding the right direction: a review of major constitutional developments in Indonesia



Publication Details

N. Hosen, 'Promoting democracy and finding the right direction: a review of major constitutional developments in Indonesia' in A. Chen(ed), Constitutionalism in Asia in the Early Twenty-First Century (2014) 322-342.

Additional Publication Information

ISBN: 9781107043411

Examining developments in the first decade of the twenty-first century, this authoritative collection of essays studies the evolving practice of constitutional law and constitutionalism in Asia. It provides a comprehensive overview of the diverse constitutional issues and developments in sixteen East, Southeast and South Asian countries. It also discusses the types of constitutionalism that exist and the general trends in constitutional developments whilst offering comparative, historical and analytical perspectives on Asian constitutionalism. Written by leading scholars in the field, this book will be of great interest to students and scholars alike.


Indonesia is a nation of 246 million people in search of a path to political, social, economic and legal reform. The democratic transition began in 1998 when President Soeharto resigned after thirty-two years in office, following the economic crisis which hit Indonesia in mid-1997, mass demonstrations, student demands for reform and international pressure. Reform of the 1945 constitution has been one of the most important aspects of the transition to democracy in Indonesia. The amendments have changed the political game by establishing democratic principles of separation of powers, checks and balances, and revising the constitutional framework for executive-legislative relations. Moreover, these amendments have fundamentally altered the rules under which the state relates to it citizens; the three brances of government deal with one another; civilians and the military interact, and the national, provincial, district and village authorities relate to each other.

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