Publication Details

Y. Shi, 'The challenge of reducing greenhouse gas emissions from international shipping: assessing the international maritime organization's regulatory response' (2012) 23 (1) Yearbook of International Environmental Law 131-157.


As a comparatively cost effective, clean, and safe method of transportation, international shipping offers an important means of moving goods internationally and enables other activities such as leisure cruising.1 Many factors contribute to the development of international shipping. As an example, the evolution of ship propulsion has progressed from sailing ships to steam ships powered by coal and then to an almost universal use of diesel engines, significantly accelerating international trade.2 Similarly, advances in telecommunication and information and communications technology infrastructure, reductions in trade barriers, and low energy costs have also contributed to the expansion of international shipping and seaborne trade.3 However, the increase in fuel consumption associated with increasing seaborne trade has led to a rise in atmospheric emissions from international shipping.



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