The achievement of FFA members’ regional goals for their tuna fisheries depends heavily upon the effective implementation by national governments of a comprehensive range of MCS measures. In support of this, FFA members have established various regional MCS measures that provide a framework to enable effective management and control of the region’s tuna fisheries. However, problematic implementation at the national level continues to undermine the ability of FFA members and the secretariat to fully implement these initiatives and effectively monitor and control the region’s tuna fisheries, thereby threatening their returns. While some FFA members have developed strong MCS systems with high levels of implementation, much of the FFA membership continues to suffer from inconsistent implementation of MCS measures. Various studies have identified the need to improve MCS implementation, noting that weaknesses in MCS were critical obstacles to sustainable management and profitable development.. This is no simple task for any country – developed or developing; island or continent. In 2006, an international study assessed compliance by 53 countries (95% of global fish landings) with key provisions of the Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries. The study noted that approximately 57% of the countries ‘failed’ on compliance with MCS related measures. Of these, 30% had particularly poor ‘fail’ grades, including the regionally significant countries: France, Philippines, China, Indonesia, Taiwan, and Spain. Project Two reviews the implementation by FFA members of MCS measures and provides recommendations for improving performance and monitoring where necessary. This review focuses primarily on implementation of regional and global MCS measures that have been agreed to by the FFA membership.