Treatment of Detainees under Criminal Processes
Domestic laws usually prohibit political violence by private paramilitary outfits or "non-state entities" directed against domestic targets, as the state has a formal monopoly on the use of force within its jurisdiction. However, at the international level, states have not agreed to prohibitions in international law on cross-border attacks by non-state entities. This paper explores how transnational paramilitary attacks by non-state entities might be criminalised and prosecuted under international and national law.
G. L. Rose, 'Treatment of Detainees under Criminal Processes' (Paper presented at the The Global Impact of Terrorism 2008, Herzliya, 2008).