Like most coastal states, Indonesia is faced with a need to protect, conserve, and manage its marine and coastal resources. Twenty-six and a half per cent of the Indonesian Gross National Product was derived from the utilisation of coastal and marine resources in 2002.1 Fish and other marine resources make a significant contribution to the supply of food, employment, and foreign exchange. More than 60% of animal protein consumed by the population is derived from the fisheries sector; and per capita consumption was estimated to be 21.7 kg per year in 2002.2 Employment in the primary fishing sector was roughly 1,805,470 people; and exports exceeded imports by just over US$ 1.6 million in 2000.3 The aim of this paper is to address problems of maritime law enforcement and compliance in Indonesia with particular reference to the management of marine and coastal resources, especially coral reefs. The paper supports a model of community-based law enforcement for the management of coastal and coral reefs in Indonesia. It argues that community-based enforcement, integrated into a participatory co-management approach, is an appropriate model for effective coral reef management at the village level.