Further observations on certificateless public key encryption
Certificateless public key encryption can be classified into two types, namely, CLE and CLE † , both of which were introduced by Al-Riyami and Paterson in Asiacrypt 2003. Most works about certificateless public key encryption belong to CLE, where the partial secret key is uniquely determined by an entity’s identity. In CLE † , an entity’s partial secret key is not only determined by the identity information but also by his/her (partial) public key. Such techniques can enhance the resilience of certificateless public key encryption against a cheating KGC. In this paper, we first formalize the security definitions of CLE † . After that, we demonstrate the gap between the security model of CLE † and CLE, by showing the insecurity of a CLE † scheme proposed by Lai and Kou in PKC 2007. We give an attack that can successfully break the indistinguishability of their CLE † scheme, although their scheme can be proved secure in the security model of CLE. Therefore, it does not suffice to consider the security of CLE † in the security model of CLE. Finally, we show how to secure Lai-Kou’s scheme by providing a new scheme with the security proof in the model of CLE † .