Coordination in wireless sensor-actuator networks: a survey
"Wireless Sensor-Actuator Networks (WSANs) have a myriad of applications, ranging from pacifying bulls to controlling light intensity in homes automatically. An important aspect of WSANs is coordination. Unlike conventional Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), sensor and actuator nodes must work hand-in-hand to collect and forward data, and act on any sensed data collaboratively, promptly and reliably. To this end, this paper reviews current state-of-the-art techniques that address this fundamental problem: More specifically, we review techniques in the following areas: (i) sensor-actuator coordination, (ii) routing protocols, (iii) transport protocols, and (iv) actuator-to-actuator coordination protocols. We provide an extensive qualitative comparison of their key features, advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we present unresolved problems and future research directions. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved."