Unified mathematical modelling of steady-state and dynamic voltage-current characteristics for PEM fuel cells
In this study, a unified mathematical modelling technique for computing the steady-state and dynamic voltage-current (V-I) characteristics of PEM fuel cell stacks is developed. The proposed modelling method is based on the least squares technique and a set of electrochemical equations representing the PEM fuel cells. Three PEM fuel cell systems are considered for validating the proposed model. Furthermore, the authors investigated load current optimization by using the proposed method, in order to maximize the power output. Hence, this study provides a valuable approach for optimization of operating points of fuel cells and design of power conditioning units, simulators, and system controllers. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.