Supplementation with the omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids: Changes in the concentrations of omega-3 index, fatty acids and molecular phospholipids of people at ultra high risk of developing psychosis
© 2019 Omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFA) are necessary for optimum mental health, with recent studies showing low n-3 LCPUFA in people at ultra-high risk (UHR) of developing psychosis. Furthermore, people at UHR of psychosis had increased erythrocyte sphingomyelin (SM) and reduced phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) concentrations as well as 27 erythrocyte phospholipid species that differed when compared to erythrocytes from age matched people not at UHR of psychosis. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate the effect of n-3 supplementation on the different erythrocyte lipid species (including SM and PE concentrations) in people at UHR of psychosis. Participants were randomly assigned to fish oil (containing 840 mg EPA and 560 mg DHA per day) or placebo (paraffin oil) for 6 months. Fasted blood samples were taken at baseline and post intervention. Mass spectrometry was used to analyse the molecular phospholipids and fatty acid composition of erythrocytes for both groups. The n-3 index was significantly increased from 3.0% to 4.12% after 6 months of receiving n-3 capsules. Fish oil capsules increased the phospholipid molecular species containing n-3 LCPUFA, and concomitant decreases in n-6 LCPUFA species. SM species did not show any significant changes in n-3 LCPUFA group however, three SM species (SM 16:0, SM 18:0, SM 18:1) significantly increased after 6 months of supplementation with placebo. N-3 supplementation for 6 months led to higher n-3 incorporation into erythrocytes, at the expense of n-6 PUFA across all phospholipid classes analyzed and may have prevented the increase in SM seen in the placebo group.