Objectives This study evaluated the Integrated Behavioral Model and examined oral self‐care behavior of community‐dwelling middle‐aged and older people. Design A cross‐sectional design was used. Sample Purposive sampling was employed to recruit middle and older age community‐dwelling individuals, with research locations in public health centers in northern Taiwan. Measurements Structured questionnaires comprised: participant demographics, oral health literacy, oral self‐care attitude, self‐efficacy, intention, and behavior, and significant others' perceptions and beliefs as well as environmental constraints. The Model verification was evaluated by path analysis. Results Two hundred and sixty‐three participants (N = 263) completed the questionnaire survey. Results identified significant direct effects of the independent variables of oral health care literacy, intention of oral self‐care, and perception of environmental constraints on the dependent variable of oral self‐care behavior; and significant indirect effects on attitude of oral self‐care, perception of significant other beliefs, self‐efficacy of oral self‐care. Conclusion Public health nurses work with the whole community and can potentially improve the oral self‐care behavior of middle‐aged and older adults by enhancing their oral health knowledge, maintaining their positive attitudes, assisting acceptance of recognition and support from others, increasing their ability to perform oral self‐care, reducing environmental constraints, and thereby enhancing their oral self‐care awareness.